An actor is a person, organisation, or external system that plays a role in one or more interactions with your system.
Associations between actors and use cases are indicated in use case diagrams by solid lines. An association exists whenever an actor is involved with an interaction described by a use case. Associations are modelled as lines connecting use cases and actors to one another, with an optional arrowhead on one end of the line. The arrowhead is often used to indicating the direction of the initial invocation of the relationship or to indicate the primary actor within the use case. The arrowheads are typically confused with data flow and as a result their use is avoided.
A strategy that describes how that brand is positioned in the market, which target public the brand is targeted at, and maintaining a desired reputation of the brand
Building Professional
Professionals users (BP) familiar with the building and installation. Usually the first to learn about the new service.
Used to describe individuals who serve as role models to others and influence them through their actions and opinions. They therefore have the ability to easily persuade their peers and invoke behaviour changes. A champion can be anyone with good social skills – from the friendly janitor you see every day to the authoritative boss you admire at work.
Conversion Factors
Conversion factors put units into relation taking national differences (e.g. definition, values) into account.
City Council
Local Council
Local and City Council
Local and city councils might pay for resource consumption (and rent) of tenants receiving societal benefits and / or suffering from energy poverty.
Data requirement
The data requirements provide a detailed description of the data model that the system must use to fulfil its functional requirements.
Deployment View
Describes the environment and topology into which the system will be deployed, This view captures the hardware environment that the system needs, the technical environment requirements for each element, and the mapping of the software elements to the runtime environment that will execute them.
Development View
Describes the architecture that supports the software development process. Development views communicate the aspects of the architecture of interest to those stakeholders involved in building, testing, maintaining, and enhancing the system.
Do-Nothing scenario
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A dwelling is an occupied zone in residential buildings.
Dynamic Testing
Software Testing designed to assess the dynamic behaviour of software code, interfaces etc.
Experienced User
A user with experience of the system that they are operating, or other similar systems that have similar interfaces/functionality
The Guide refers to feature as a quality of energy services similar across different pilot sites. A feature does not necessarily equal technical features of equipment as the implementation might depend on the choices made by stakeholders during the design process. The technical documentation avoids these term wherever possible.
Functional requirement
Functional requirements capture the intended behaviour of the system-or what the system will do.
Intervention scenario
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IT-Service Provider
The IT-service provider is responsible for collecting all data from the measurement service provider. This involves responsibility for the full process of the back-end data-stream and allowing tenants and social housing providers two-level access to their data.
Legal requirements (e.g. data protection) that also include regulatory and standard (e.g. ISO) aspects of the system.
Logical View
The logical view is concerned with the functionality that the system provides to end-users.
Measurement Service
Measurement Service Provider
The measurement service provider is responsible for collection of (smart) meter data and making the data of individual meters available to some other party. Usually, the measurement provider owns the meters and charges another party for meters and the services offered.
A Municipality operates non-residential and sometimes residential buildings.
Non-functional requirement
Non-functional requirements or system qualities, capture required properties of the system, such as performance, configurability, accessibility, etc.-in other words, how well some behavioural or structural aspect of the system should be accomplished.
Non-residential buildings
Symbol: buildnonresidential - Any building which is not being occupied. Non-residential buildings can have multiple purposes (e.g. different companies in one building) and can be divided into several zones.
Novice User
A user with limited experience of the system that they are operating, or other similar systems that have similar interfaces/functionality
Phases are blocks of steps needed to be taken to successfully complete a ICT-energy efficiency project. This includes planning, implementation, operation and evaluation.
Policy Makers
Policy makers are not directly involved in the management of a single project. However, policy makers design incentives and might distribute funding which might push energy efficiency measures.
Process View
The process view deals with the dynamic aspects of the system, explain the interaction between the activity of the system
Professional User
Service users who have the job of managing energy in the building from city energy managers to caretakers
Public Space
Any space not dedicated to a zone in any building type. Consumption in public sapce is often not metered but the delta of total building consumption minus all zones. Zones include staircases and hallways.
In the context of the service, the way users (visitors, tenants, staff, professionals) are approached and made aware of the project with the goal to become involved in different ways.
Residential buildings
Symbol: buildresidential - Buildings being occupied by a tenant. Examples in the Guide are typically multi-apartment buildings in social housing. Zone`s in residential buildings include :term:`dwelling and public space.
An architectural scenario is a crisp, concise description of a situation that the system is likely to face in its production environment, along with a definition of the response required of the system
Energy Provider
Energy Provider
The Energy Provider is the last distributor/agent of the commodity. The commodity sold to the tenant is used by the tenant himself. Usually, the energy provider either issues the bills directly to the tenant or through the social housing provider to the tenant.
Service Provider
The service provider (SP) offers the service and is responsible for the operation of the system. The service provider can be IT-Service, Measurement Service and / or Energy Provider depending on the set-up and local environment. Unless descriptions are specifically addressed to one of these three stakeholders the reference to SP can refer to either of these types.
Smart Metering[1]
Smart Meter
Like conventional meters, Smart Meters measure amounts of energy or water flowing through them. But whereas conventional meters must be read manually, and the consumption calculated since the last reading, Smart Meters provide specific information on how much energy or water was consumed, when it was consumed and at what tariff – a continuous calculation that conventional meters are incapable of.
Software Architecture
The structure or structures of that system, which comprise software elements, the externally visible properties of those elements, and the relationships among them [Bass 2003]. “Externally visible” properties refer to those assumptions other elements can make of an element, such as its provided services, performance characteris­tics, fault handling, shared resource usage, and so on.
Staff (S) are building users who are employed to work in the building but are not building professionals.
Social Housing Provider
Social Housing Provider
The Social Housing Provider is responsible for the buildings the tenants live in. This involves managing the facilities and organising - not necessarily performing - the billing of public space or publicly used commodities.
Social Services
Social Services includes social workers in touch with the tenant users on regular basis. The relationship can become a relevant entry point for recruitment and empowerment.
The tenant (T) lives in a single dwelling (or owns it) and is the user of the service. Usually, he pays for the rent and all commodity bills but might also receive societal benefits.
Stakeholders are key players with interests either funding or otherwise affected by the service. Stakeholders include (but are not limited to): Council, Municipality, Service Provider, Social Housing Provider, Tenant, amd Policy Makers
Static Testing
Software testing which is not conducted on the software itself, generally conducted on the constituent parts of the software (e.g. code, interface etc.)
Users need to be trained in how to use the developed services. Apart from technical training (e.g. how to use the web service, how to react to alarms etc) users can be trained in best ways of engaging with other users and methods of communicating with them (social training).
Users are described as glossary_usertype or classified being Novice User, Experienced User or Professional User
A representation of a whole system from the perspective of a related set of concerns [IEEE 1471]. A representation of a particular type of software architectural elements that occur in a system, their properties, and the relations among them. A view conforms to a defining viewpoint.
View packet
The smallest package of architectural documentation that could usefully be given to a stakeholder. The documentation of a view is composed of one or more view packets.
A specification of the conventions for constructing and using a view; a pattern or template from which to develop individual views by establishing the purposes and audience for a view, and the techniques for its creation and analysis [IEEE 1471]. Identifies the set of concerns to be addressed, and identifies the modelling techniques, evaluation techniques, consistency checking techniques, etc., used by any conforming view.
A visitor (V), is another individual in a building, frequently or rarely, for long or short stays (e.g. museum visitors, school pupils, crèche parents, hospital patients etc)
A zone is any part of a any type of building which can be metered, monitored and / or managed. In :term:`residential building`s


[1]ESMIG (2011) ‘A Guide to Smart Metering – Empowering people for a better environment’.