National

The list, prepared by the SmartRegions project, provides an overview of the situation in each EU Member State regarding the regulatory and legal situation and the actual implementation of smart metering on the ground, as of May 2013.

Hint

empirica is currently working on a study analysing best practice of implementing EED Article 9-11 regarding individualised metering and billing of heating and hot water.

Austria

Legal and regulatory status:

In October 2011 the Energy Regulatory Authority (E-Control (2011)) issued a decree according to the Electricity Act which determines the functional requirements of smart metering systems in Austria. As expected by the stakeholders, the regulator mainly determined in this decree the topics mentioned in a catalogue with minimum function requirements for smart metering systems, which was already published in June 2010 for public consultation. In spring 2012 E-Control published a proposal for the mandatory Information of customers equipped with a smart meter. This regulation entered into force in January 2013.

In November 2012 E-Control has launched the project cybersecurity. It should be completed in September 2013. The major obstacle for smart metering is the calibration legislation. It is expected that the amendment to the Electricity Act will solve this.

Implementation status:

On 24 April 2012 the Minister of the Economy issued a decree, which determines the mandatory timetable for the rollout of smart metering services in Austria (BMWFJ (2012)). The new decree will accelerate the rollout of smart meters. The main rollout of smarter can be expected in 2016 and 2017.The electricity network operators have to equip at least 95 per cent of all metering points by the end of 2019.

In spring 2013 the Regulatory Authority EControl carried out the first monitoring of the implementation. In Austria 196 820 smart meters are installed (3,4% of the metering points), 312 714 smart meters are either installed or already ordered (5,4%).

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Belgium

Legal and regulatory status:

No legislation regarding the introduction of smart metering yet. However, smart metering stays on the agenda of all stakeholders mainly due to late or erroneous invoices. Regional regulators have conducted an economic cost-benefit analyses for all regions with negative results. Because of this, Belgium is legally not bound to install smart meters at 80% of all households in 2020 as prescribed in the 3rd Energy Package.

Implementation status:

The focus in Belgium is on technical tests of the meters and the communication technology. A number of pilot projects are in progress or being prepared (Sibelga with 200 electricity meters, Eandis with 4,000 meters in the cities of Leest and Hombeek, some 40,000 meters by 2012 and a plan for a complete rollout of 2.5 million electricity and 1.5million gas meters by 2019.

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Bulgaria

Legal and regulatory status:

There are no official plans for a nationwide rollout of intelligent metering systems and no legislative or regulatory initiatives. A cost-benefit-analysis has not been carried out yet.

Implementation status:

A considerable number of electronic meters with remote reading have been installed since 2006 in order to reduce non-technical losses and the number of complaints about erroneous invoices.

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Cyprus

Legal and regulatory status:

There is no legal framework demanding a mandatory rollout, but at the same time the current legislation does not hinder the development of smart metering markets.

Implementation status:

The DSO of Cyprus started a pilot project in July 2010 with 3000 smart meters. The goal is to publish a cost-benefit analysis report by July 2012. The declared strategy underlines the objective of moving towards a full rollout of smart meters for all electricity customers in Cyprus that will be based on the findings of the pilot project.

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Czech Republic

Legal and regulatory status:

There are no legal obligations concerning smart metering in the Czech Republic. A national rollout plan is under discussion, but progress in the regulation of smart metering will depend on the results of a new cost-benefit analysis, required before September 2012. A cost-benefit analysis in 2006 led to a negative result.

Implementation status:

Several smart meter pilot projects have been carried out or are still in progress in the Czech Republic: E.ON Česká Republika installed 4000 smart meters in South Moravia in 2006, PRE recently completed a project in Prague with 3000 meters, and ČEZ installed 2000 meters in east Bohemia. ČEZ is currently involved in FUTUR/E/MOTION, a smart grid project with 32,000 meters which will provide a basis for the cost-benefit analysis. Further rollouts are not currently planned.

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Denmark

Legal and regulatory status:

Since 2005 hourly metering has been mandatory for customers with a yearly consumption larger than 100,000 kWh. There is no legal framework for the provision of smart meters for domestic customers. Mandatory metering of the electricity consumption of household customers has been suggested, but a cost-benefitanalysis led to a negative result. Minimum functional requirement for electronic electricity meters are available (Energistyrelsen, 2009).

In April 2013 a Smart Grid Strategy 2.0 for Denmark was launched. This strategy describes a Smart grid concept, an information model for data communication and a road Map focusing on the role of the grid companies. In Denmark the focus is related to flexibility due to the potential of having 50 % electricity production from Wind power within 2020. Today 50% of the customers, representing 75 % of the electricity consumption, have hourly metering of their consumption. These customers should get hourly metering and billing before 2014. Smart meters should be installed to all within 2020. Flexibility incentives should be developed to give the customers incentives for increased demand response.

Implementation status:

Several trials have been conducted and a number of DSOs install electronic meters even without legal requirements. Of a total of 3million metering points in Denmark, by 2011 approximately 50% will have remote reading (ESMA, 2010). Demand response is one of the main drivers.

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Estonia

Legal and regulatory status:

According to the responsible ministry (The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications), the plan is to rollout smart meters by the end of 2017. The rollouts are led by DSOs, and the government exercises its policy to rollout smart meters through the dominant DSO OÜ Jaotusvõrk. Establishing requirements for smart meters is part of the Estonian NEEAP (2006/32/EC).

Implementation status:

The major DSOs are rolling out smart meters. The dominant DSO OÜ Jaotusvork is having a major rollout (638,000 meters) to be implemented in four years between 2011 and 2015. After the rollouts of the largest DSOs are ready, the national smart meter coverage should be97%.

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Finnland

Legal and regulatory status:

Electricity Market Decree (66/2009) demands 80% smart meter penetration by 2014, and the DSOs are responsible for the rollout. The regulator has defined minimum functional requirements for the metering system, including hourly metering, two-way communication and load control abilities.

Implementation status:

All DSOs have started their rollouts. Over 2million electricity meters are installed (around 1 million remain to be installed). Utilities are intensively developing and deploying information & feedback systems for their customers, along with other new smart metering-based services and developers (demand response, in-home displays, smart homes). For district heat, it is estimate that over 80% of meters are remotely readable and most of these are capable of providing data hourly.

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France

Legal and regulatory status:

A government decree in September 2010 defined the terms of a mandatory rollout, aiming to achieve 95% coverage by the end of 2016. Since January 2012, all new electricity meters installed must be smart meters. The regulator has defined some guidelines and minimum functional requirements for electricity meters. A cost-benefit analysis was carried out in 2007 with positive results.

Implementation status:

In September 2011, after several successful pilot projects, the French government announced the rollout of 35 million smart electricity meters, starting in 2013 and ending in 2018. ERDF is responsible for the deployment. An initial smart gas meter pilot was carried out by GrDF, installing around 18,500 smart gas meters from April 2010 to June 2011. A rollout is still being discussed.

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Germany

Legal and regulatory status:

Germany continues to follow a marketdriven policy - a government-led rollout therefore not planned. The metering sector is liberalised. Legal obligations on smart metering have been expanded in recent years: smart meters must be installed for certain customers and in certain buildings, and utilities must offer load-variable or time-of-use tariffs. Minimum functional requirements and technical specifications are under development. A cost-benefit analysis should be completed in early 2013.

Implementation status:

Although progress has been made with recent legislation, some obstacles to the introduction of smart meters remain. Many utilities have not yet fulfilled their obligations regarding meters and tariffs, and incentives for utilities and customers are small. An estimated 500,000 smart meters have been installed in Germany. Six pilot projects are being carried out as part of the state-sponsored “E-Energy” programme – utilities and smart meter manufacturers are gaining important insights into the technical and economic issues of smart metering.

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Greece

Legal and regulatory status:

Greece is proceeding with a rollout of electricity smart meters and has adopted a legal framework (Article 15 of law 3855/2010). Greece has defined some minimum functional requirements and has defined two-way communication as the minimum requirement for the communication system for smart meters in electricity. A final schedule for a full rollout has not been announced yet.

Implementation status:

The dominating Public Power Corporation (PPC) has plans to install 60,000 smart meters in large-end customers with low voltage connections, many of which are residential. This project will later be extended to all customers throughout Greece. Possibilities of extending the electricity metering system to include metering water and natural gas consumption are currently being explored with the Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP SA) and the Athens Gas Supply Company (EPA SA).

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Hungary

Legal and regulatory status:

No legal framework for a mandatory rollout. But a decision is expected in 2011 with transposition of Directive 2009/72/EC. Currently there is only an obligation to provide smart meters and variable tariffs where it is economically reasonable. A cost-benefit-analysis was carried out in 2010 with the recommendation to implement a system with legally separate but regulated meter operators and to start the rollout for domestic customers in 2014. Minimum functional requirements are proposed.

Implementation status:

Pilot projects are expected to start in 2011.

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Ireland

Legal and regulatory status:

Ireland’s national smart metering rollout program is now in the second phase of requirements definition and procurement by the Commission for Energy Regulation (CER).The initial phase comprising exploratory trials and cost-benefit analyses. The CER has decided that electricity and gas smart metering will be rolled out to all residential consumers and a significant proportion of small-to-medium enterprise (SME) consumers, i.e. all those currently in the G4 meter category. The gas smart metering will leverage the electricity smart metering communications infrastructure. Further, the CER is mandating for all electricity consumers the rollout of inhome displays, energy usage statements containing detailed consumption and cost information, and time-of-use electricity tariffs. Prepayment services are also required to be provided as standard for both electricity and gas consumers. According to the CER’s decision paper, which follows a consultation, the objectives of the smart meter program are to: - Encourage energy efficiency - Facilitate peak load management - Support renewable and micro generation - Enhance competition and improve consumer experience - Improve network services - Review and realize synergies with water metering.

Other topics covered in the decision paper include the high level requirements for the ownership and provision of smart meter data/information, the high level functionality requirements of the smart metering end-to-end solution, and the procurement model for delivery of the technology components of the solution.

Implementation status:

The second phase is expected to last for less than 2 years up to 2014. Thereafter the third phase of building and testing will last through 2015, followed by deployment over two to four years between 2015 and 2019. Ireland’s smart meter rollout will involve about 2.2 million electricity consumers and 600,000 gas consumers with an investment up to €1 billion. It is expected to yield a net benefit of around €229 million over 20 years.

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Italy

Legal and regulatory status:

The installation of remotely readable electronic meters is mandatory. Minimum functional requirements are available. Focus of metering system is on reduction of non-technical losses, not energy savings.

Implementation status:

Rollout started in 2008 and by the end of 2011 95% of 36 million customers will have received electronic meters. Data from meters can easily be displayed in home screens and become part of a more complex HEMS (Home Energy Management System), currently being tested and deployed on a pilot scale.

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Latvia

Legal and regulatory status:

No legal framework is in place, the installation of smart meters depends on the activity of DSO. The current monopoly situation is not encouraging. The dominant DSO Latvenergo has developed a smart network concept (approved on 1 March 2011 by the decision of the Latvenergo Board of Directors).

Implementation status:

Latvenergo (dominant DSO) is preparing a concept for rollout. Conventional meters are gradually replaced by electronic meters (not necessarily AMM). 10,000 meters are already connected to the AMR system (7,000 of them are industrial customer). Latvenergo is planning to start a smart metering pilot scheme in 2012 for domestic customers. According to the plan the company will install smart meters into 500 households (which are selected by different monthly consumptions) and will implement a new MDC system.

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Lithuania

Legal and regulatory status:

No legal framework, cost-benefit-analysis in place and no national rollout plans are available.

Implementation status:

No activities known.

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Luxembourg

Legal and regulatory status:

No rollout plans and no cost-benefit analysis available.

Implementation status:

Some DSOs started with trials testing internet portals, displays, etc.

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Malta

Legal and regulatory status:

A mandatory rollout started in 2010 to reduce the costs of bi-monthly billing and non-technical losses. Functional requirements are available.

Implementation status:

Mandatory rollout was decided and started in 2009 with a pilot phase. In 2010 Enemalta launched a rollout plan to replace all electricity and water meters for270,000 customers by the end of 2012. 140,000 smart meters have been replaced to date and an online portal allows customers to access to their details.

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Netherlands

Legal and regulatory status:

he revised Dutch Electricity Act and the Gas Act (approved in 2011, in force since 2012) obliges network operators (owners of the smart meters) to offer all small customers (households and small businesses) a smart meter. Customers have a legal choice over whether they accept a smart meter, ranging from having no smart meter at all to a smart meter with full functionality to provide interval data to the network operator and a chosen service provider. When accepting a smart meter, the customer has to authorise the network operator to collect and use a minimum set of consumption data for specific regulated purposes such as bimonthly coststatements, annual billing, switching supplier and moving home. The revised law requires energy companies to provide customers with these bimonthly cost statements as a basic form of feedback. Additional regulation sets out the minimum information requirements for these cost statements. Providing customers with more detailed consumption and cost information for household energy management is considered to be a market responsibility. The customer will choose and authorise a commercial service provider to use (realtime) data beyond the minimum regulated level. To be able to access the measurement data, the network operators set up uniform authorisation and authentication procedures. These procedures ensure that individual measurement data is only used for the specific purposes for which the customer has given their consent.

Implementation status:

The rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands will take place in two stages. From 2012 until 2014 a small-scale rollout will take place for experience purposes. The small-scale rollout will take place in case of regular meter replacements (e.g. malfunctions), new meters to be placed in newly built houses/ renovated houses and new meters at the request of customers. Important aspect, that will extensively be monitored during the small-scale rollout are related to technical and economic matters and the level of energy savings and smart metering services market development. From 2014, the rollout will continue on a larger scale, based on the experiences mentioned above. The large-scale rollout aims to have a smart meter fitted by at least 80% of households and small businesses in 2020, as mandated through the 3rd Energy Package.

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Norway

Legal and regulatory status:

Currently, hourly metering is required for large customers with a yearly consumption larger than 100,.000 kWh. New regulations for smart metering were provided on1 July 2011, and according to this all customers should have a smart meter installed by1/1/2017. 80% of customers should have a smart meter by1/1/2016. In the meantime new requirenments have been formulated (Changes spring 2013): - Roll out of Automated Metering and Control systems (AMR) within 1.1.2019 - Exceptions can be performed...

o …for installations with a small and predictable
consumption or
o … if the installation of the meter is of a substantial

and documented disadvantage for the customer - The exceptions should be evaluated based on a cost/benefit analysis Functional requirements are not changed. After the regulations were given in July 2011, it has been a large focus on security – and to prevent hacking. This discussion has also focused on the switch required in the meter. The conclusion is that it is NOT required that this switch should be used for emergency preparedness, but it SHOULD be possible to use this for customer services (for example customers that are moving and customers that do not pay their electricity bill). This means that it is not required that all customers can be disconnected/throttled at the same time, and it should be possible to prevent that the functionality is used for all the customers.

Implementation status:

The Norwegian DSOs were obliged to report their status for deployment of smart meters by1 January 2012. According to this, most of the DSOs at the moment are in the planning phase of their installation of smart meters. 38 DSOs reported that they have installed smart meters for most of their customers (NVE, 2012). Some power retailers offer contracts at the spot price on an hourly basis.

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Poland

Legal and regulatory status:

No legal framework is currently available but legislation is in progress and is expected to be ready for decision in 2012. In 2008, the regulator presented a feasibility study and presented a timetable for a rollout within 10 years.

Implementation status:

National energy platform and smart grid consortium were founded in November 2010 to support the implementation. Energa, RWE Stoen, EnergiaPro, Enea are carrying out pilot projects. Decisions for a rollout depend on clear legal and regulatory guidelines.

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Portugal

Legal and regulatory status:

No legal framework for a mandatory rollout. In 2007, the regulator presented a meter substitution plan for the period 2010–2015 and a list of functional requirements. That plan is co-ordinated with Spain.

Implementation status:

The national meter replacement plan started with a pilot phase in 2010. A consortium led by EDP Distribuição started the project InovGrid. Around 100,000 smart meters have been installed in several points of the country (no geographical concentration). EDP also presented the project InovGrid in 2010 (with the InovCity of Évora as a key location, with 30,000 meters), where customers receive near real-time consumption information. In 2012 another 100,000 meters should be installed in 7 Portuguese regions.

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Romania

Legal and regulatory status:

A decision on a rollout is expected in 2012. Currently there is no official plan for a rollout and a cost-benefit-analysis has not been carried out yet. The Electricity Act does not specifically refer to smart metering. The Romanian Energy Law 13/2007 has been recently updated with Article 73 introducing smart metering services but waits for promulgation. The government’s strategy and the legislative position are expected to be clarified in 2012.

Implementation status:

Some DSOs started with pilot projects. The dominant domestic DSO, Electrica S.A., started with 59,000 meters. The lack of standardisation and both legal and regulatory requirements obviates further investments. The majority of pilot projects are integrated into the billing system.

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Slovakia

Legal and regulatory status:

There is currently no official strategy, legal framework or cost-benefit-analysis available. A possible rollout is under discussion.

Implementation status:

DSOs gradually installing smart meters on a voluntary basis preferably for customers with large consumption.

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Slovenia

Legal and regulatory status:

No legal requirements for a mandatory rollout. A cost-benefit-analysis was carried out in 2008 which assumed investment costs of EUR 266 per metering point and a payback period of 11 years for total investments. An update of the study was done in 2010 with positive macroeconomic results. There are no minimum functional requirements available.

Implementation status:

So far only Elektro Gorenjska has decided to start a full-scale role out for all of its approx.80,000 customers in 2011. Other companies have not decided on a rollout yet, but some of them are also running pilot projects. Since 2008 all industrial customers have been equipped with AMRsystems.

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Spain

Legal and regulatory status:

The Energy Act of December 2007 includes a meter replacement plan for household electricity meters for the period until the end of 2018. Due to some delay in the SM deployment this Act has to be updated in February 2012 with new dates to install meters by DSOs. A set of functional requirements is available. A costbenefit- analysis has not been performed yet.

Implementation status:

The five main companies in Spain (Endesa, Iberdrola, Gas Natural Fenosa, Hidrocantábrico and EON) have already installed over 2,000,000 smart meters in the country. After the launching phase during 2010 and 2011, where first tests were executed, massive installation is currently in progress with hundreds of thousands of units per month. Communications and data bases are also in progress to allow remote management.

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Sweden

Legal and regulatory status:

Sweden was the first country to (indirectly) mandate a full rollout of smart meters. Since July 2009 monthly meter reading is required for smaller customers with a fuse description less than 63 A. Hourly metering should be performed for larger customers. From 1st October 2012 a new regulation was introduced, that allowed the customers to require hourly metering of their electricity consumption, if they had an hourly energy contract with their retailer. DSOs are responsible for metering. A costbenefit- analysis resulted in net benefits of more frequent meter readings. Functional requirements are available. There are no mandatory requirements for remote meter reading of gas, heat and water.

Implementation status:

From 2009 nearly all end customers had remotely readable electricity meters. 90% of the meters installed have the possibility of hourly metering of consumption, but they cannot fulfil requirements related to hourly settlement because of problems with daily collection and reporting of the hourly values. It is suggested that all customers should have the possibility of entering into agreements that require hourly metering free of charge, but this is not decided yet.

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United Kingdom

Legal and regulatory status:

In March 2011, the Government set out the conclusions on the rollout strategy and policy design for the smart metering implementation. Mandatory rollout for larger customers until 2014 (electricity & gas), and mandate in place for domestic and non-domestic electricity & gas rollout starting from 2014 and to be finished in 2019. The main energy suppliers, rather than distribution networks, are responsible for the rollout. The current foundation phase makes the preparations needed for the start of the mass rollout, with minimum requirements for meters and displays set out in SMETS1 (sent to the EC for notification). The next Enduring Phase covers the main rollout period expected to begin in 2014, for which the minimum requirements (SMETS2) are being developed until Sept 2012.

Implementation status:

Installed smart meters, in-home displays and trialled feedback mechanisms, financial incentives and ToU tariffs

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—— Footnotes
[1]www.smartregions.net